What Are the Main Components Of a Computer 2023

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When you look at your body you might see some internal and external parts like hand, leg, eyes, liver, lunch, etc. Likewise, when you look at a car you will also see some internal and external parts like the tire, battery, axle, brakes, etc.

Similarly, as a machine, a computer holds some necessary components which lead a complete computer. As a student, job seeker, programmer all we need to know about those necessary components of the computer. For this reason, our endeavor is to make you familiar with the main components of a computer.

Main Components Of a Computer

Four Main Components Of A Computer

Every machine operates by its main components, likewise, a computer also consists of four main components and those are

1.Input Unit

2.Output Unit

3.Storage Unit

4.Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Input Unit

A computer can’t operate by itself so that it requires data from users. The input device is known as external components just like our nose, mouth, eye,  etc. Data or information need to be injected through the input device like a keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, light pen, webcam, barcode reader, etc.

The input device also varies from data or information’s variation like writing is inputted by keyboard, picture by webcam, sound by the microphone, and so on.

Whenever you input data then the data is converted into binary code (0,1) because a computer only understands binary code. A unit name input interface plays a vital role in this transformation.

Similar Read: Computer Basics: Types Of Storage Devices In 2021

Output Unit

A computer helps us by analyze our inputted data or information and provide some possible outcomes. This possible outcome is delivered by the output device like monitor, printer, speaker, projector, etc. The output unit also is known as the external device like the input unit and it reverses the input unit’s task.

You already know that the computer transformed your inputted data into binary code (0, 1) but you get output on the visual, audio, text, or hardcopy format by the printer. This readable transformation is possible by a unit named output interface.

Storage Unit

Whenever you input data or information on the computer then the computer needs to store those till processing. Likewise, after processing computer needs to store data for future use. 

For both tasks, computers use two types of storage facilities one is primary storage and another is secondary storage.

In primary storage like a RAM store a little amount of data for a short time. Whereas, in secondary storage like a hard disk store a big amount of data for a long time.

More Read: What Are The Limitations Of Computer In 2021

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU stands for the Central Processing Unit which is a key component of any computer in which data is beginning to process. If you look at the human brain it carries out the main function of the body. Likewise, CPU carries out a computer’s main activities like calculation, comparison, etc.

Therefore, big scientists recognize CPU as the brain of the computer, where all the data comes to process. A CPU is consists of two components one is Control Unit and another is Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).

In a Control Unit, instructions are extracted from memory and interpret those. Afterward, it directs the operation of the computer where the Control Unit does not process or store data. Besides, it robustly co-ordinates and manages the whole computing system.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) consists of two sections one is the Arithmetic Section and another is the Logic Section. 

  • Arithmetic Section carries out arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and also division of the data. 

  • Logic selection continues the process of logic operation like matching, selecting and computing the data.


✅ What are the 4 main components of a computer?

A computer has many parts and these parts are segmented under 4 main components like the Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU).  

✅ What are the components of a computer?

A computer required some parts and those parts are segmented under Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU). 

✅ How many parts are there in the computer?

You may find many parts in a computer, all the parts are categorized under four components like Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU).

✅ What is the basic unit of the computer?

A computer is consist of four basic parts which leads computer’s activities like Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU)

✅ What is RAM and ROM on the computer?

RAM (Read-only Memory) and ROM (Random Access Memory) is known as a storage device of a computer. RAM is volatile memory so that data will be lost when the power was gone and ROM is non-volatile so that data will not lose even power gone.


The computer definitely plays a major role in this 21st centuries advanced world. Today our activities become fast and comfortable with this sophisticated device. Naturally, people become curious about how this sophisticated device works as well as how it consists of.

Our article will help you to make familiar with the main components of a computer easily. Last but not least, if you find it worthwhile to understand then share among your friends and tell us your experience in the comment box. 

Also Read: The Advantages Of Assembly Language Of 2021

Professional Tech Content Writter and Developer. He finds his sense of work in Windows software, Andorid Apps, tools, ROMs , Emulator , and what not. Apart from mobile OS, I also enjoys testing softwares for PC. and Testing android software for pc, Windows 7, Windows 10, Xp, Mac, Linux.

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